Additionally, see below for articles about how supplements of vitamin A can potentially block vitamin D availability in the body. It may be much safer to obtain vitamin A from dietary sources such as beta-carotene from vegetables which converts to useable vitamin A as the body needs it, with no chance of blocking vitamin D. Moderate intake of "pre-formed" vitamin A is still recommended by many health care practitioners and includes foods like beef liver, eggs, and butter.
The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection.
"Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with increased rates of infection. Since the early 19th century, both environmental (i.e., sunlight) and dietary sources (cod liver) of vitamin D have been identified as treatments for TB. The recent discovery that vitamin D induces antimicrobial peptide gene expression explains, in part, the 'antibiotic' effect of vitamin D and has greatly renewed interest in the ability of vitamin D to improve immune function."
Synergistic action of vitamin D and retinoic acid restricts invasion of macrophages by pathogenic mycobacteria.
"...the results revealed that vitamin D(3)/RA treatment inhibits mycobacterial entry as well as survival within macrophages, possibly through rescue of phagosome maturation arrest. The developing knowledge in this area suggests that vitamin D(3)/RA may be of importance in the treatment of intracellular infection, particularly tuberculosis."
Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response
"... differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection."
Vitamin D for Treatment and Prevention of Infectious Diseases
"... leads to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular M tuberculosis. In the state of vitamin D deficiency, the infected macrophage is unable to produce sufficient 1,25-(OH)2D to upregulate production of cathelicidin."
EDITOR'S NOTE: It may be better to get your vitamin A from dietary sources only.
Vitamin D, Vitamin A (Retinoic Acid)
"... the benefits of vitamin D are almost entirely negated in those with the highest vitamin A intake. And the retinol intake did not have to be that high in these older adults to begin to negate vitamin D's effects, about 3,000 IU/day."
The British Medical Journal Study:
"The dose-response analysis of the interaction between circulating 25-(OH)D concentration and level of dietary retinol intake (P for interaction=0.030) indicates that the inverse colorectal cancer risk association of higher 25-(OH)D was stronger at lower intakes of retinol (table 5)."
Research from the American Society of Microbiology, 1993: "... Retinoic Acid Inhibits 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-Activated Expression ..."
Shedding Light on Tuberculosis Susceptibility
"Activation of the TLR2 and TLR1 heterodimer (TLR2/1) by a bacterial lipoprotein led to vitamin D receptor expression and processing of the pro-vitamin D precursor, which stimulated vitamin D-induced up-regulation of an antimicrobial peptide and killing of MTB bacilli."
The images used in this video belong to The United States Naval Observatory (USNO). For more information, please visit http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/AltAz.php.
UV radiation also increases with altitude. This increase has been shown to be between 4-5% for every 1000 feet ascended. (Source: National Weather Service)
Auguste Rollier and Sunlight Therapy
In 1903, Auguste Rollier began using sunlight therapy to treat tuberculosis in Switzerland. He was so successful that his methods were adopted by hospitals worldwide over the next 4 decades. Of the 2,167 patients who were under his care for tuberculosis following World War II, 1,746 completely recovered their health. This was an astonishing number for the time, with the only failures being those who were already in the most advanced stage of the disease.
Obituary of Dr. Auguste Rollier, M.D.
Written by F.T. Bilings Jr., M.D.
EDITOR'S NOTE: Indonesian scientists found that treating tuberculosis patients with the equivalent of 10,000 units of vitamin D daily led to a sputum conversion rate of 100 percent.
The effect of vitamin D as supplementary treatment in patients with moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculous lesion.
"One hundred percent of the vitamin D group and only 76.7% of the placebo group had sputum conversion."
Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gujarati Asians in west London: a case-control study
"25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency may contribute to the high occurrence of tuberculosis in this population. Polymorphisms in the VDR gene also contribute to susceptibility when considered in combination with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency."
EDITOR'S NOTE: It may take up to 12 days from the time you sunbathe to the time your body has made usable vitamin D3.
"Previtamin D3 spontaneously isomerizes to vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) in a antarafacial sigmatropic hydride shift. At room temperature, the transformation of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 takes about 12 days to complete."
Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides found in lysosomes in macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection."
Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
"This impending crisis has spurred the search for new therapeutic agents to combat antibiotic resistance. One potential solution lies within a system all animals are "born with," the innate immune system responsible for keeping us healthy."